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太阳能控制器原理及设计要求发布时间:2016-08-17  来源 : NUSKYTEK
  

太阳能充电控制器是几乎所有充电电池的电源系统的重要组成部分,无论电源是光伏、风能、水电、燃料或公用电网。它的目的是保持你的电池的正确充电和长期的安全。控制器的基本功能是相当简单的。充电控制器可以阻止反向电流,防止电池过充、倒流。一些控制器还防止电池过放电,保护电过载,和/或显示电池状态和电源的参数的实时显示。让我们单独了解下每一个功能。 

A charge controller is an essential part of nearly all power systems that charge batteries, whether the power source is PV, wind, hydro, fuel, or utility grid. Its purpose is to keep your batteries properly fed and safe for the long term. The basic functions of a controller are quite simple. Charge controllers block reverse current and prevent battery overcharge. Some controllers also prevent battery over discharge, protect from electrical overload, and/or display battery status and the flow of power. Let's examine each function individually. 

01.防止倒流

光伏电池板的工作,是通过泵送电流通过你的电池在的一个方向。在晚上,面板可以通过一点电流在反向方向,造成从电池轻微的放电。(我们的术语“电池”代表一个单一的电池或电池组)潜在损失是轻微的,它很容易防止。一些类型的风和水轮发电机也发生反向电流时,他们会停止贡没做(大多数数停止时在故障条件下停止)。 在大多数控制器中,充电电流通过一个半导体(晶体管),它像一个阀门来控制电流。它被称为“半导体”,因为它只在一个方向上流通电流。它可以防止反向电流,没有任何额外的需求或成本。 在一些控制器中,一个电磁线圈打开和关闭一个机械开关。这被称为一个继电器。(你可以听到它的点击和关闭)继电器在夜间关闭,阻止反向电流。 如果您使用的是光伏电池阵列,只需将电池组(一个非常小的电池组的大小)充电,那么你可能不需要一个充电控制器。这是一个罕见的应用。一个例子是一个微小的维护模块,防止电池放电在一辆停放的车辆,但不会支持大的负载。在这种情况下,可以安装一个简单的二极管,以阻止反向电流。用于此目的的二极管被称为“阻塞二极管”。

 Blocking Reverse Current Photovoltaic panels work by pumping current through your battery in one direction. At night, the panels may pass a bit of current in the reverse direction, causing a slight discharge from the battery. (Our term "battery" represents either a single battery or bank of batteries.) The potential loss is minor, but it is easy to prevent. Some types of wind and hydro generators also draw reverse current when they stop (most do not except under fault conditions). In most controllers, charge current passes through a semiconductor (a transistor) which acts like a valve to control the current. It is called a "semiconductor" because it passes current only in one direction. It prevents reverse current without any extra effort or cost. In some controllers, an electromagnetic coil opens and closes a mechanical switch. This is called a relay. (You can hear it click on and off.) The relay switches off at night, to block reverse current. If you are using a PV array only to trickle-charge a battery (a very small array relative to the size of the battery), then you may not need a charge controller. This is a rare application. An example is a tiny maintenance module that prevents battery discharge in a parked vehicle but will not support significant loads. You can install a simple diode in that case, to block reverse current. A diode used for this purpose is called a "blocking diode." 

02. 防止过度充电 

当电池达到完全充电时,它不能继续储存进入的能量。如果能量继续被充进电瓶,电池电压会太高。这时候水分离成氢和氧,并迅速气泡出来。(它看起来像是沸腾的,有时我们叫它,虽然它不是热。)有水分过度流失,并可能导致气体被点燃一形成一个小爆炸。电池性能也会迅速降低,并可能会过热。过多的电压也会强加到你的负载上(灯,电器等),或导致你的逆变器关闭。 防止过度充电是一个简单的问题,当当电池电压达到一个特定的数值后减少了能量的流动。当电压下降,由于较低的太阳强度或电量使用的增加,控制器再次允许最大可能的电荷。这就是所谓的“调压”,它是所有充电控制器的最基本的功能。该控制器“看”的电压,并调节电池充电响应。 一些控制器通过将电流完全关闭来调节对电池充进的能量。这就是所谓的“开/关控制”,逐渐减少电流。这被称为“脉冲宽度调制”(脉宽调制)。当正确设置为您的类型的电池,这两种方法都可以工作得很好。 一个脉宽调制控制器保持电压更恒定。如果它有两个阶段的调节,它将首先将电压保持到一个安全的最大值,为电池达到完全充电。然后,它会降低电压,以维持一个“完成”或“流”充电。两个阶段的调节是很重要的一个系统,可能会经历许多天或几周的多余的能量(或很少使用的能源)。它保持一个完整的电荷,但最大限度地减少水的损失和压力。 控制器改变电荷速率的电压被称为设定点。确定理想的设定点时,有一些在太阳下山前,可以有效的给蓄电池充电。设置点的确定取决于使用的预期模式,电池的类型,并在一定程度上,系统设计师或运营商的经验等。有些控制器有可调的设定点,而其他的则不。

 Preventing Overcharge When a battery reaches full charge, it can no longer store incoming energy. If energy continues to be applied at the full rate, the battery voltage gets too high. Water separates into hydrogen and oxygen and bubbles out rapidly. (It looks like it's boiling so we sometimes call it that, although it's not actually hot.) There is excessive loss of water, and a chance that the gasses can ignite and cause a small explosion. The battery will also degrade rapidly and may possibly overheat. Excessive voltage can also stress your loads (lights, appliances, etc.) or cause your inverter to shut off. Preventing overcharge is simply a matter of reducing the flow of energy to the battery when the battery reaches a specific voltage. When the voltage drops due to lower sun intensity or an increase in electrical usage, the controller again allows the maximum possible charge. This is called "voltage regulating." It is the most essential function of all charge controllers. The controller "looks at" the voltage, and regulates the battery charging in response. Some controllers regulate the flow of energy to the battery by switching the current fully on or fully off. This is called "on/off control." Others reduce the current gradually. This is called "pulse width modulation" (PWM). Both methods work well when set properly for your type of battery. A PWM controller holds the voltage more constant. If it has two-stage regulation, it will first hold the voltage to a safe maximum for the battery to reach full charge. Then, it will drop the voltage lower, to sustain a "finish" or "trickle" charge. Two-stage regulating is important for a system that may experience many days or weeks of excess energy (or little use of energy). It maintains a full charge but minimizes water loss and stress. The voltages at which the controller changes the charge rate are called set points. When determining the ideal set points, there is some compromise between charging quickly before the sun goes down, and mildly overcharging the battery. The determination of set points depends on the anticipated patterns of usage, the type of battery, and to some extent, the experience and philosophy of the system designer or operator. Some controllers have adjustable set points, while others do not.

 03.控制设定点与温度 充电控制的理想设定点随电池的温度变化。一些控制器有一个被称为“温度补偿”的功能,当控制器检测到电池温度低时,它会提高设定点。否则当电池冷,它会减少充电太快。如果你的电池被暴露在温度波动大于约30°F(17°C),补偿是必不可少的。一些控制器有内置的温度传感器。这样的控制器必须安装在一个地方,那里的温度接近电池。更好的控制器有一个远程温度探头,在一个小电缆。探头应直接连接到电池上,以向控制器报告其温度。自动温度补偿的一种替代方法是根据季节手动调整设定点(如果可能的话)。这可能是足够的,这样做只有一年两次,在春季和秋季。 

Control Set Points vs. Temperature The ideal set points for charge control vary with a battery's temperature. Some controllers have a feature called "temperature compensation." When the controller senses a low battery temperature, it will raise the set points. Otherwise when the battery is cold, it will reduce the charge too soon. If your batteries are exposed to temperature swings greater than about 30° F (17° C), compensation is essential.Some controllers have a temperature sensor built in. Such a controller must be mounted in a place where the temperature is close to that of the batteries. Better controllers have a remote temperature probe, on a small cable. The probe should be attached directly to a battery in order to report its temperature to the controller.An alternative to automatic temperature compensation is to manually adjust the set points (if possible) according to the seasons. It may be sufficient to do this only twice a year, in spring and fall. 

04. 控制设置点和电池类型 电荷控制的理想设定点取决于电池的设计。绝大多数的系统使用深循环铅酸电池的开口式或密封型。充满液体的铅酸电池,这些都是标准的经济循环电池。 密封电池使用的饱和垫片。他们也被称为“阀门调节”或“吸收玻璃垫”,或简单的“免维护”,他们需要被调节到一个略低于开口电池的电压。一些控制器有一种选择电池类型的方法。不要选择使用一个不适用于你电池类型的控制器。

 12 V铅酸蓄电池在77°F(25°C)下的典型设定点 (这些都是典型的,这里只介绍例子。) 最高电压(开口电池):14.4伏 最高电压(密封电池):14 V 低压保护:10.8 V 恢复电压:12.5 V 12V电池温度补偿: 每°C的0.3 V偏差(标准25°C) Control Set Points vs. Battery Type The ideal set points for charge controlling depend on the design of the battery. The vast majority of RE systems use deep-cycle lead-acid batteries of either the flooded type or the sealed type. Flooded batteries are filled with liquid. These are the standard, economical deep cycle batteries. Sealed batteries use saturated pads between the plates. They are also called "valve-regulated" or "absorbed glass mat," or simply "maintenance-free." They need to be regulated to a slightly lower voltage than flooded batteries or they will dry out and be ruined. Some controllers have a means to select the type of battery. Never use a controller that is not intended for your type of battery. Typical set points for 12 V lead-acid batteries at 77° F (25° C) (These are typical, presented here only for example.) High limit (flooded battery): 14.4 V High limit (sealed battery): 14.0 V Resume full charge: 13.0 V Low voltage disconnect: 10.8 V Reconnect: 12.5 V Temperature compensation for 12V battery: -.03 V per ° C deviation from standard 25° C

 05. 低压保护(LVD) 在可再生能源系统中使用的深循环电池被设计为约80%放电。如果他们放电100%,他们立即损坏。想象一下你的厨房炉子上的一壶水沸腾。它干涸的那一刻,锅过热。同样,如果你等待,直到你的灯光看起来暗淡,一些电池损坏已经发生了。每一次发生这种情况,电池的容量和寿命都会减少。如果电池在这段时间内一直处于放电状态,它可能迅速地被破坏。 唯一的方法,以防止过放电时,所有其他故障,是断开负载(电器,灯等),然后重新连接时,只有当电压已恢复,由于一些实质性收费。当过放电接近时,一个12伏的电池电量低于11伏(一个24伏电池电量低于22 V)。 低电压断开电路将断开该设定点上的负载。它将重新连接的负载,只有当电池电压已基本上恢复,由于一些电荷的积累。一个典型的LVD复位点是13伏特的电压(26 V 24 V系统)。 所有现代的直流电源和内置,甚至廉价袖珍的。逆变器将关闭,以保护自己和你的负载,以及你的电池。通常情况下,逆变器直接连接到电池,而不是通过充电控制器,因为它的电流是非常高的,因为它不需要外部控制器。 如果你有任何的直流负载,你应该有一个内径。一些充电控制器有一个内置。你也可以获得一个单独的控制器装置。一些LVD系统有一个“仁慈的开关”,让你画出少量的能量,至少足够长的时间来找到蜡烛和火柴!直流冰箱有LVD内置。 如果你购买一个充电控制器内置LVD,确保它有足够的能力来处理你的直流负载。例如,让我们说你需要一个充电控制器处理小于10安培的电流,但你有一个直流水加压泵,抽20安培(短期)加上一个6安培的直流照明负荷。一个30安培的LVD充电控制器将是适当的。不要买一个10安培的充电控制器,只有一个10或15安培的负载容量! Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD) The deep-cycle batteries used in renewable energy systems are designed to be discharged by about 80 percent. If they are discharged 100 percent, they are immediately damaged. Imagine a pot of water boiling on your kitchen stove. The moment it runs dry, the pot overheats. If you wait until the steaming stops, it is already too late! Similarly, if you wait until your lights look dim, some battery damage will have already occurred. Every time this happens, both the capacity and the life of the battery will be reduced by a small amount. If the battery sits in this over discharged state for days or weeks at a time, it can be ruined quickly. The only way to prevent over discharge when all else fails, is to disconnect loads (appliances, lights, etc.), and then to reconnect them only when the voltage has recovered due to some substantial charging. When over discharge is approaching, a 12 volt battery drops below 11 volts (a 24 V battery drops below 22 V). A low voltage disconnect circuit will disconnect loads at that set point. It will reconnect the loads only when the battery voltage has substantially recovered due to the accumulation of some charge. A typical LVD reset point is 13 volts (26 V on a 24 V system). All modern dc power inverters have LVD built in, even cheap pocket-sized ones. The inverter will turn off to protect itself and your loads as well as your battery. Normally, an inverter is connected directly to the batteries, not through the charge controller, because its current draw can be very high, and because it does not require external LVD. If you have any DC loads, you should have an LVD. Some charge controllers have one built in. You can also obtain a separate LVD device. Some LVD systems have a "mercy switch" to let you draw a minimal amount of energy, at least long enough to find the candles and matches! DC refrigerators have LVD built in. If you purchase a charge controller with built-in LVD, make sure that it has enough capacity to handle your DC loads. For example, let's say you need a charge controller to handle less than 10 amps of charge current, but you have a DC water pressurizing pump that draws 20 amps (for short periods) plus a 6 amp DC lighting load. A charge controller with a 30 amp LVD would be appropriate. Don't buy a 10 amp charge controller that has only a 10 or 15 amp load capacity! 


以上中英信息由太阳能控制器公司-尚旭科技提供(PWM控制器,MPPT控制器,路灯控制器专家)